Mudstone - Clay becomes cemented to form mudstone
Particles smaller than 0.004 mm in diameter
Size of mudstone: 7 cm

Fossil-bearing Black Mudstone
Deposited in stagnant water, an environment that promotes fossil preservation
Size: 7 cm

Shale – Splits into pieces due to the preferred orientation of clay minerals
Particles smaller than 0.004 mm in diameter
Size: 13 cm

Oil Shale - Contains significant amounts of organic material present as kerogen
Colorado, USA
Size: 10 cm

Siltstone – Deposited in slowly moving currents
Particle sizes between 0.004 mm and 0.06 mm
Size: 11 cm

Brachiopod-bearing Siltstone
Fossils are evidence of past life environments and time indicators
Size: 15 cm

Loess and Compacted loess deposit
Aeolian sediment which forms by the accumulation of
wind-blown silt
Rhine, Germany
Size: 7 cm